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Determining absolute molecular orientation at interfaces: a phase retrieval approach for sum frequency generation spectroscopy M Sovago, E Vartiainen, M Bonn The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 15 , , Observation of buried water molecules in phospholipid membranes by surface sum-frequency generation spectroscopy M Sovago, E Vartiainen, M Bonn The Journal of chemical physics 16 , , Journal of applied physics 96 8 , , Phase retrieval in optical spectroscopy: resolving optical constants from power spectra EM Vartiainen, KE Peiponen, T Asakura Applied spectroscopy 50 10 , , Future work on scattering formalisms, such as discrete dipole approximations [ 57 ] or models for G r , can thus be employed using the same methodology.

However, in the derivation of this approximation, it is assumed that the scatterers are small and no correlations exist between their spatial positions—which is likely invalid for whole blood. The agreement with the empirical form of Steinke et al. In our method, a choice for scattering theory and radial distribution function must be made. The order of magnitude is the same over the whole wavelength range that is considered, and all spectral features occur at the same wavelengths.

The same discrepancies are found in the spectrum of the scattering anisotropy g Fig. In our calculations, its real part is obtained via Kramers—Kronig transformation of the imaginary part, which in turn is obtained from the absorption coefficient of haemoglobin Eqs. If these spectra would be available down to wavelengths overlapping with the water absorption in the UV, a similar increase in the refractive index is expected to be found.

However, the values for the refractive index of haemoglobin solutions from Friebel et al. Applying the experimentally determined refractive index of Friebel et al. Since the primary aim of this review is to provide the reader with a set of optical property spectra for whole blood that can be used in the practice of biomedical optics, the question remains which spectra the reader should choose from the provided results. Hence, our logical advice is to use these compiled spectra.

The compiled spectra, as well as the calculated spectra rely on individual assumptions in their analysis. At present, we cannot assess which method provides the most reliable results. This is expected, since the optical properties are strong functions of the complex refractive index. The spectrum of n is available through calculations this work and has been determined experimentally [ 30 ] as shown in Fig.

For two important factors of influence—the effects of absorption flattening and dependent scattering—we provided practical formulas for rescaling literature spectra that have been obtained from haemolysed and diluted blood, respectively. With that, we hope that we have provided the reader with a set of optical property spectra for whole blood that can be used in the practice of biomedical optics.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Lasers in Medical Science. Lasers Med Sci. Published online Oct Nienke Bosschaart , Gerda J. Edelman , Maurice C. Aalders , Ton G. Gerda J. Maurice C. Ton G. Dirk J.

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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Sep 16; Accepted Sep Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Optical property measurements on blood are influenced by a large variety of factors of both physical and methodological origin. Keywords: Blood, Optical properties, Spectroscopy, Absorption coefficient, Scattering coefficient, Scattering anisotropy. Introduction The interaction of light with blood plays an important role in optical diagnostics and therapeutics—for instance for the non-invasive assessment of blood composition [ 1 ] and the laser treatment of varicose veins [ 2 ].

Factors influencing the optical properties of blood Since red blood cells are the main contributor to the optical properties of blood, their volume percentage i. Measurement methods in literature Most measurements on whole or diluted blood with intact red blood cells have been performed using single or double integrating sphere geometries.

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Table 1 Literature on the optical properties of blood in the visible and near-infrared. Open in a separate window. Scattering properties of whole blood We model light scattering of a blood medium by the angular resolved scattered intensity of a collection of N randomly distributed, identical particles:.

Choosing between the compiled and calculated spectra Since the primary aim of this review is to provide the reader with a set of optical property spectra for whole blood that can be used in the practice of biomedical optics, the question remains which spectra the reader should choose from the provided results.

Acknowledgments N. References 1. Photonics-based in vivo total hemoglobin monitoring and clinical relevance. J Biophotonics. Endovenous therapies of lower extremity varicosities: a meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg.


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Horecker BL. The absorption spectra of hemoglobin and its derivatives in the visible and near infra-red regions. J Biol Chem. Visible and near infrared absorption spectra of human and animal haemoglobin. Utrecht: VSP; Data from Gratzer WB Med. The optical properties of blood in the near infrared spectral range. Proc SPIE. J Biomed Opt. Empirical model functions to calculate hematocrit-dependent optical properties of human blood. Appl Opt. Diffuse model of the optical absorbance of whole blood.

JOSA A. Are quantitative attenuation measurements of blood by optical coherence tomography feasible? Opt Lett.

Influence of cell shape and aggregate formation on the optical properties of flowing whole blood. Light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood subjected to simple shear. Sakota D, Takatani S. Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood. Phys Rev Lett. Classification, functions and clinical relevance of extracellular vesicles.

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Pharmacol Rev. Boulpaep EL Blood chapter Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. Optical properties of platelets and blood plasma and their influence on the optical behavior of whole blood in the visible to near infrared wavelength range. Limitations and opportunities of transcutaneous bilirubin measurements. Identification and age estimation of blood stains on colored backgrounds by near infrared spectroscopy. Forensic Sci Int. Light scattering by aggregated red blood cells. Lee VS, Tarassenko L. Absorption and multiple scattering by suspensions of aligned red blood cells.


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  8. Effects of temperature on optical absorbance spectra of oxy-, carboxy-, and deoxyhemoglobin. Clin Chem. Dynamics of temperature dependent modifications of blood in the near-infrared. Lasers Surg Med. Computational study of scattering from healthy and diseased red blood cells. Quantitative interpretations of visible-NIR reflectance spectra of blood.

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