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This publication will concentrate on the culture and feeding of rotifers, but will include information on less used zooplankton such as cladocerans water fleas , copepods and tintinnid ciliates. An important larger zooplanktor used in aquaculture is the Artemia brine shrimp , which is the subject of SRAC publication It is a euryhaline species, small and slow swimming, with good nutritional value. It is well suited to mass culture because it is prolific and tolerates a wide variety of environmental conditions.

Strain selection is important because reproduction rate, size and optimum culture conditions temperature and salinity can all vary with different strains and species. Some freshwater rotifer variation can be seen in Figure 1b. Two of the best known strains of brackishwater rotifers were thought to be morphotypes of B. Later it was found that these are two different species L being B.

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Mean dry weights are approximately 0. The size of the S type is to micrometers according to one source, and to micrometers according to another. The L type is to micrometers according to one source, and to micrometers according to another. Larval fish survive better with L-type rotifers, probably because the larvae use less energy to feed on larger rotifers. Rotifers may tolerate 1 to 97 ppt salinity, but optimum reproducreproduction occurs below 35 ppt.

Most production facilities use 10 to 20 ppt salinity. Abrupt salinity changes of more than 5 ppt can inhibit swimming or even cause death, so acclimation should be done slowly and carefully. Temperature, salinity and feed concentration all affect the growth rate of rotifers, but temperature is the most critical factor. Rotifers have broad nutritional requirements that must be met to produce stable cultures. They are planktonic filter feeders, feeding on organic particles brought to their mouths by the movements of their coronas.

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The corona is a ciliated organ on the head region that characterizes rotifers and is their means of locomotion. Rotifers ingest many types of feed, including bacteria, as long as the size of the particle is appropriate, so a variety of food sources can be used to rear rotifers. However, rotifers cultured indoors often require vitamin B 12 and vitamin A supplements. The nutritional value of rotifers for larval fish depends on the rotifers' food source.

Researchers have determined that highly unsaturated fatty acids HUFAs are essential for the survival and growth of marine finfish larvae. Rotifer feeds containing DHA, n-3, docosahexaenoic acid, and EPA, n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid, can be valuable, with DHA the more essential for marine fish larvae. Depending upon their food source, rotifers are about 52 to 59 percent protein, up to 13 percent fat, and 3.

There are many methods of culturing rotifers. Some are low-density and some high-density. An early method involved daily transfers of rotifers to fresh tanks of the same size after most of the algae were consumed. Porphyrins are often used as indicators of environmental pollution 66 , 67 ; thus increase in their metabolism in CONT tanks may be indicative of water quality differences between treatments. Pathways elevated in probiotic-treated water included thirteen pathways within metabolism.

These products aid in growth, protect against ammonia and xenobiotics, enhance the stress response, and act as energy sources for immune and other cells in fishes Other bacterial functions that suggest an increase in energy sources for fish cells include butanoate, proponoate, and pyruvate metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis. The increase in these pathways suggests the water microbiota may be providing energy benefits to the fish larvae upon stocking of the systems. Probiotic-treated water also included numerous upregulated pathways associated with immune health, including peroxisome which protects cells against oxidative stress 69 , and terpenoid backbone synthesis and geraniol degradation whose benefits include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing capabilities 70 , Additionally, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism was increased.

These antimicrobial compounds are produced by some members of Bacillus In conclusion, use of a mixed Bacillus species probiotic improves survival and transport stress resistance in common snook. Data from two trials suggest that potential mechanisms for larval rearing improvement include enhanced development of the gastrointestinal tract, boosted immunity, inhibition of pathogens and opportunists, and improved water quality. Early stabilization of microbiota within RAS improved overall success in fish production, and also improved performance of the probiotic.

The range of benefits provided by these Bacillus strains suggests the potential for this probiotic to be valuable in other fish species, improving the sustainability of recirculating aquaculture and reducing the larval rearing bottleneck to enhance the overall efficiency of fish production systems.

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Feeding of fish larvae in aquaculture

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    A review.